Thesis on rural water supply

It is only 3. Unfortunately this number is much higher for the rural population of the world for whom the population without accessibility to improved water source reached The world's water security situation is basically influenced by two grand driving forces: pressure on the supply of water and pressure on the demand for water. Pressures on water supply include; impact of climate change, multinational use of water basins and aquifers, poor water supply infrastructure and intermittency are just only listing some of the major once.

Hence identifying these two grand drivers of water supply and demand situation, the options for tackling these challenges will revolve around them. Therefore, integrating supply orientated and demand orientated measure through policy, governance and regulation, cultural change and institutional reform, as well as through better approaches to management and application of new technologies and techniques are promising measures if the two drivers are required to be tackled and the world water situation needed to be improved ibid.

More than 2 billion people gained access to improved water sources from to Access to safe drinking water is measured by the percentage of the population having access to and using improved drinking water sources. Improved drinking water sources should, but do not always, provide safe drinking water, and include:. In the year all most all African countries were adopted the millennium development goals and seeks to "halve by the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and sanitation" Todaro and Smith, However in Sub-Saharan Africa it is anticipated to rich the target to the year , after 25 year from the expected target Sutton, That is why still, around SSA has the lowest drinking water coverage and the lowest sanitation coverage in the world WHO, With only 56 percent of the population enjoying access to safe water, Sub-Saharan Africa lags behind other regions in terms of access to improved water sources.

Based on present trends, it appears that the region is unlikely to meet the target of 75 percent access to improved water by , as specified in the Millennium Development Goals MDG. The welfare implications of safe water cannot be overstated. The estimated health and time-saving benefits of meeting the MDG goal are about 11 times as high as the associated costs. Monitoring the progress of infrastructure sectors such as water supply has been a significant by-product of the MDG, and serious attention and funding have been devoted in recent years to developing systems for monitoring and evaluating in developing countries.

Piped water reaches more urban Africans than any other form of water supply-but not as large a share as it did in the early s. The most recent available data for 32 countries suggests that some 39 percent of the urban population of Sub-Saharan Africa is connected to a piped network, compared with 50 percent in the early s. Analysis suggests that the majority of those who lack access to utility water live too far away from the distribution network, although some fail to connect even when they live close by.

Water-sector institutions follow no consistent pattern in Sub-Saharan Africa. Where service is centralized, a significant minority has chosen to combine power and water services into a single national multi-utility urban water sector reforms were carried out in the s, with the aim of creating commercially oriented utilities and bringing the sector under formal regulation.

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One goal of the reforms was to attract private participation in the sector. In Africa despite there are recently positive trends regarding the water supply and coverage, still the problem is pervasive in the region and remains unsolved permanently. Even in the region for many of those who supposedly already enjoy an improved service, the reality is one of poor continuity, poor quality and premature failure. As a result Tens of millions of people face continuing problems with systems that fail prematurely, leading to wasted resources and false expectations Lockwood, and Smits, In Africa the sustainability of water projects still remains the major challenge for continued provision of water to the rural population.

Due to this fact huge amount money which estimated to be hundreds of millions of dollars over the last 20 years are wasted.

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Having recognizing such trends community managed projects has been envisaged but still the problem remains intact due to lack real participation of the community RWSN, , cited in Lockwood, and Smits, Looking in to the trends of urban improved water coverage, in East Africa for instance the progress is still remained undone. As shown in the Figure 3 below only Djibouti reaches around Unfortunately among the East African countries, Ethiopia has the lowest improved water coverage estimation as compared to Uganda and Djibouti.

Even though the prospects of urban water supply have shown some progress, still the trend fails to converge with the urban water supply. The water supply and sanitation sector in Ethiopia is one of the least developed and is mostly characterized by service deficiency of physical infrastructure as well as by inadequate management capacity to handle policy and regulatory issue and to plan, operate, and maintain the service.

Rushing streams from the Ethiopian highlands form tributaries of famous Blue Nile, Tekeze, Awash, Omo, Wabeshebele and Baro-Akobo-rivers which flow across borders to neighboring countries. But as recurrent drought drives more and more rural people from their traditional farmlands to urban centers, Ethiopia faces growing urban water crises. Ethiopia has one of the highest urbanization growth rates in the developing World. The urban population in Ethiopia in , the first census period, was 4. In , the second census period, the urban population was 7.

Risks and responses to universal drinking water security

Total urban population had increased by 12 per cent from that of In terms of urban centers, in , Ethiopia had urban centers with population of over In , the second census period, the urban centers in the country grew to registering an increase of 71 per cent over that of though the definitions of the two censuses are not the same Tegegne, The growth has been much higher for some intermediate towns. In Currently, in about The rapid growth of urban population has placed tremendous pressure on the management capacity of municipalities for service delivery and local economic development.

This phenomenal growth has also burdened many municipalities with the problems of inadequate housing, poverty and unemployment, inadequate water and electricity supply, and poor sanitation systems. This kind of rapid urban population growth will inevitably call for huge investments in housing, urban infrastructure, water and electricity supply, sanitation systems and environmental protection programs and programs to alleviate poverty and unemployment in the cities.

This implies that the challenge will require well trained municipal management and resource capacity, responsive urban governance and well trained and motivated personnel and sustaining services such as water, electricity supply, local revenue collection and administration to meet the ever growing demand for better and more quality services and infrastructures. Because of this population pressure and other factors as per official statistics, coverage of water and sanitation service in Ethiopia is very poor, among the lowest in the world, especially for rural areas.

According to the figures given by Tegegne , the amount demanded is much higher than the supply. That is, in the amount supplied by Addis Ababa Authority was only 62 per cent of the amount demanded. Berhanu and Said in Genenew also figured out that only 27 per cent of the populations of Ethiopia have access to safe water and 10 per cent have access to sanitation while these figures stand 71 per cent and 30 per cent for safe water and sanitation respectively for low income countries.

There is also regional variation both in rural and urban areas such as Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa and Harari in particular showing more per centage of population with access to safe source of water and sanitation.

Afar, Benishangul-Gumuz and Gambella regions show the low per centage of population with access to safe water. For instance, in towns such as Mekele, Nazareth, Bahirdar and Harrar only The water supply in small towns is extremely low. Regarding this, the World Bank group mentioned that towns in the 2, to 50, population range face special challenge in the provision of their WSS services.

The demand for differentiated technologies-piped water supply in the core, alternative technologies in the fringe areas- and the often rapid unpredictable water demand and spatial growth require planning, design, and management skills that exceed community based management approaches. But unlike larger towns or cities, these smaller towns often lack the financial and human resources to independently plan, finance, manage and operate their WSS systems.

This implies that a key challenge for Town WSS is to allocate limited government resources amongst a large number of dispersed towns. The following table 2. There are also variations across urban areas. Based on the official statistics, conditions with access to safe water in urban areas is higher in terms of coverage, with about 84 per cent having access to safe water sources, though there are some variations across different town size classes.

This, however, needs to be treated with caution as most households rely on shared services, consumption levels are very low, seasonal variability is very high and unscheduled disruptions to services are very common. Small towns with less than 2, populations have access levels of only 40 per cent and those with less than 10, populations have a level of around 60 per cent.

C 304 Rural water supply and sanitation

MWR distinguished three categories of towns outside Addis Ababa. Rural towns: towns with less than 2, population where 60 per cent of towns have piped system, but coverage levels in terms of population with access to piped system is low at about 20 per cent. Small towns: towns with 2 to 10, population that mostly have piped systems but the access to piped system is only about 50 per cent and medium and large towns all have piped systems but do require some improvement in access.

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Ethiopia has plenty of water resources but the available water is not distributed evenly across the country and the amount varies with seasons and years. To ensure that supply meets demand the source of the water must be carefully chosen, taking into account present and future demand for water, and the costs. The cost of water supplies is heavily influenced by the distance of reliable water sources from towns.

The challenge for many towns is finding nearby water sources. Planning for present and future demand has to consider population growth. The demand for water is increasing in cities and towns due to an ever-growing population and the migration of people from rural areas to towns in search of jobs and a better life. There are also increasing demands from industrial and commercial development.

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The quantity of water required for domestic use depends not only on the number of people but also on their habits and culture, and on how accessible the water is. On average, Ethiopians in urban areas use only about 15 litres of water a day for their needs MoH, ; Ali and Terfa, There is a difference between the WHO estimate and the daily water consumption per person in Ethiopian towns.


The shortfall is perhaps due to the shortage of private water taps, which means that people have to collect water from public taps. If people have a piped water supply in their home they are likely to wash and bathe more frequently, and some may have water-using appliances like washing machines. As water supply systems improve and access increases, the consumption of water will increase also.

It is therefore important for water supply planners to consider the expected changes in society and in living standards.

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Planning of water supply projects should also consider the water requirements of schools, hospitals and other health facilities, churches and mosques, hotels, public washrooms, and other community facilities. The planning criteria for water supply coverage in the OWNP are:.